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Rowing Workouts

Woman Rowing on Indoor Rowing Machine

When the weather forces you to stay indoors, a rowing machine can keep you fit and save your sanity.  But how do you make the most of a rowing machine? In, this article we cover everything from rowing technique to workout routines, and even workout music.  Rowing is one of the most efficient forms of aerobic exercises that improves heart health and tones major muscle groups while staying gentle on your frame. This full-body activity roasts calories quickly and tends to keep boredom at bay. People who row tend to reach their fitness goals.


Want to learn how to row correctly or get suggestions about how to best use your workout time from warm ups to cool downs? You’ve come to the right place. We cover it all. Here some quick links to the subjects that we discuss below:


Perfect Your Technique

Distance Workouts

Stretches for Rowing

Interval Workouts

Warm-up Exercises for Rowing

Music for Rowing Workouts


How To Row With Style: Perfecting Your Technique

Before making a habit of rowing indoors or out, it’s important to learn the proper technique. Here’s why”


  • Using the correct technique makes rowing more effective by avoiding wasting energy on unnecessary movement.
  • The right technique also makes exercise more comfortable.
  • It also helps prevent injuries as it is all too easy to stain a muscle through using improper techniques.


Of course, using the right rowing machine and custom settings also make a difference. Most of the better rowing machines are adjustable for almost any body size. Some of the cheapest rowing machines are even surprisingly adjustable. Check for customization options on your rowing machine’s seat and footplates before you begin.


Rowing Technique Video

Here is a “how to row” video from Concept2, the leading brand of air rower. The narrator and model break down the stroke cycle into smaller movements. Keep these tips in mind while watching the video:


  • The correct sequence for muscle movement is legs, core, arms.  Feel free to use a mnemonic device like “Love Conquers All”  to help you remember.
  • Notice how the model keeps her back straight. Take care to bend at the hips, not along your spine.
  • These small movements aren’t just helpful  for learning how to row, they are also excellent warm-up exercises!


Notes: The Steps in Rowing

Here’s a summary of the movements shown in the video. Start with your legs outstretched and the handlebar pulled up to your lower chest.


  1. Stretch out your arms, letting your upper body tilt from an 11:00 position to 1:00.  
  2. Bend your knees slightly as you push off the footplate with your hamstrings.
  3. Focus on your core. Start to lean backward. When you’re almost at the 11:00 position, pull the rower bar toward your lower chest.
  4. Finish by reversing the movement. Extend your arms. Pull your torso forward and then bend your knees.


The best advice we can give to beginners is to exercise in front of a mirror, or film yourself rowing. From there you can compare your style to that of the model in the video, and make the necessary adjustments to your form.


More Tips About Rowing Technique

These simple tips are especially directed at those who are new to rowing. Avoiding common mistakes in rowing technique can make all of the difference in both performance and avoidance of injury or unnecessary strain.


  • Make sure that your rowing machine fits your body. Sometimes a small adjustment in the footplates or seating makes a huge difference to performance and comfort.
  • Watch the level of the handlebar. It should remain constant. If you need to lift your hands over your knees at any point, then your technique needs refinement.
  • Keep your back straight but loose. Your back should only tilt between the “11:00” and “1:00” positions. Most rowing is actually done with the legs, not the upper body.
  • Avoid rushing. Especially as you are honing your form, a good pace to start with is about 20 to 25 strokes per minute. A sprint pace for more experienced rowers is about 26 to 32 strokes per minute. In the suggested workouts below, we mention that beginners should start with simple distance workouts. These let you focus on pace and form, keeping a steady stroke rate to reach your goal.


This video from WaterRower identifies common mistakes in rowing technique:


Where else can you get help with rowing technique? Here are three options:


  1. Most indoor rower owner’s manuals illustrate how to use the machines properly. These manuals are easy to find online. You can follow any of our product reviews to the manufacturer’s website for the free PDFs.
  2. Youtube and the websites of larger rowing machine manufacturers are your best friend. Companies that make rowing machines want you to get the most out of your rowing experience, and while all machines are a little different, your form should always be the same regardless of what brand you opt for.
  3. Hiring a personal trainer can be an effective but costly option, and if you go this route, don’t just pick a personal trainer from your local gym. Instead, seek out a rowing coach.
  4. If you opt for one of NordicTrack’s rowing machines, the interactive training included in iFit Coach is filled with great ways to brush up on your form/technique.


Now that you know the correct technique, it’s time to warm up for rowing!


Warming Up For Rowing

Why warm up? A rowing warm up reduces the risk of injury and helps prevent muscle soreness. It literally warms up your body, gradually raising your body temperature by increasing blood flow to your muscles and readying your cardiovascular system for intense action.


Safety Note: It might be wise to check with a doctor before starting any aerobic exercise. Especially if you haven’t exercised regularly in the past three months, have a heart murmur, your ankles swell, or if you smoke or recently quit smoking. For more information of safety concerns related to rowing, consult the Mayo Clinic.

Stretch Before Rowing (And After!)

Rowing workouts ideally begin with stretches. But how long should you stretch?


  • Rowing coaches typically advise that each muscle group should get about three to five reps of stretches, with each stretch held for 10 to 20 seconds each.
  • The longer and more intense your workout, the more you should stretch beforehand.


It’s especially important to stretch your neck, back, and hamstrings before a rowing workout. Complete stretch sessions like those shown below prepare your whole body. In the video below from The Stretching Institute shows an extensive stretching routine that is perfect for rowing, whether on your home machine or out on the water. This video guides you through a 10 minute stretch routine that starts with neck exercises, and then moves down the body.


Warm-Up Exercises For Rowing

Warm-up exercises, like stretches, can be done on the rowing machine. The best warm-up routine breaks down the full rowing cycle. In other words, it consists of partial stroke movements that build up to a full stroke over 10 minutes. 


  1. Start with just your arms. Extend them back and forth for a few minutes.
  2. Add your back to the warm-up. Tilt from an 11:00 position to 1:00 as your arms move forward and back. Repeat this for two or three minutes.
  3. Add your legs to the drill. Bend them slightly, but not as much as you would for actual rowing. Repeat for two or three minutes.


After stretching and taking partial strokes, your body will be primed for a full rowing machine workout! After the workout, you can cool down with the same exercises used in warming up and stretching.


Full Rowing Machine Workouts

Indoor rowing workouts can be basic or complex. For basic workouts, some people simply row until they tire. Others set simple session goals in terms of calorie burn, stroke count, or elapsed time. These workouts are best suited for beginners because they concentrate on form and pace.

By complex workouts, we mean interval training workouts. Interval training involves alternating between high effort and low effort. For example, you might row vigorously for 30 seconds, then row gently (or rest entirely) for 30 seconds, and then repeat.

Distance Rowing Workouts: Beginner & Intermediate

A basic distance rowing workout is especially useful for beginners because it provides an opportunity to focus on your stroke rate. Remember, the goal for all rowing workouts is keeping great form and rhythm. This uses energy efficiently. A distance workout lets you focus primarily on form and cadence.

Here are some steps to try in a distance workout. With this intermediate-level plan, you will row in 1000-meter medium effort intervals that are broken up by long gentle intervals. 


  1. Warm up for 5 – 10 minutes.
  2. Row 1000 meters while maintaining 28 strokes per minute.
  3. Row gently for four minutes.
  4. Row 1000 meters while maintaining 24 strokes per minute.
  5. Row gently for four minutes.
  6. Row 1000 meters while maintaining 26 strokes per minute.
  7. Cool down for four minutes.


A simpler variation of this workout would use 750 meter intervals, two-minute rest periods, and a constant 26 strokes per minute.

After you have mastered your rowing technique and pace, you can move on to more advanced interval training.


Another great workout to try once acclimated.

  1. Warm-up for 5-10 minutes.
  2. Using a 2k pace…
  3. Row 1250 meters then rest 1 minutes
  4. Row 2 x 750 meters, then rest for 1 minutes rest after each set
  5. Row 3 x 250 meters, then rest for 1 minutes after each set


Or, try this…

  1. Warm-up for 5-10 minutes.
  2. Row 4 sets x 20 minutes with a 45-second rest in between sets.
  3. Row 4 minutes at 16 Strokes Per Minute
  4. Row 3 minutes at 18 Strokes Per Minute
  5. Row 2 minutes at 20 Strokes Per Minute
  6. Row 1 minute at 22 Strokes Per Minute

Indoor rowing machine

Interval Training with Rowing Machines

Why do interval training? Interval training can be more efficient than simply rowing for a set amount of time or strokes. There’s a certain element of surprise that makes interval training remarkably effective at training your muscles. It also keeps your heart rate up, even during the low intensity intervals, and burns fat quickly.

Some rowing machines have pre-programmed interval training workouts. These programs will automatically adjust the rowing machine’s resistance after a set amount of time.

Here are three interval training programs to try. They range from 30 to 42 minutes.


Music! Medium Intensity Interval Training (30 Minutes Including Warmup)

Use favorite music as your rowing coach! This workout is fun because you don’t need to focus so much on time, just pay attention to the music and how it changes. Load your music player with 30 minutes of fast motivational music.


Basically, you speed up when the chorus kicks in. Here are the steps:


  1. Warm up during the first song. Move from low intensity to medium intensity activity.
  2. When the second song starts, keep rowing at a constant medium intensity.
  3. Whenever the chorus starts, row at high intensity. Return to medium intensity when it stops. When the chorus comes back around, speed up again.
  4. For the next songs, start off at a medium perceived exertion level and speed up whenever the chorus is sung.
  5. Cool down from medium to low intensity during the last song.


Tip: The ideal song pace for this rowing workout is 150 to 180 beats per minute. You can find workout song playlists on YouTube or find songs that are a certain bpm at


Pyramid Rowing Workout (42 Minutes with Warmup Included)

The following pyramid workout is an interval training plan taken from the Concept2 console program. It is an intermediate level rowing workout. You will row for a minute, rest for a minute, row for two minutes and rest for two, and so on. Continue to trek down and up the virtual pyramid, with four minutes as the longest rowing interval.


Aim to keep a constant pace of 26 to 32 strokes per minute for each interval. This workout is 42 minutes including the warm up.


  1. Warm up for 10 minutes.
  2. Row at 75% max effort for 1 minute. Rest 1 minute.
  3. Row 2 minutes. Rest 2 minutes.
  4. Row 3 minutes. Rest 3 minutes.
  5. Row 4 minutes. Rest 4 minutes.
  6. Row 3 minutes. Rest 3 minutes.
  7. Row 2 minutes. Rest 2 minutes.
  8. Row 1 minute. Rest 1 minute.
  9. Cool down for 5 – 10 minutes.


In a rush? See the next rowing workout for an even higher-intensity cardio blast.


High Intensity Interval Training (31 Minutes with Warmup)

High intensity interval training (HIIT) can be a great calorie-burning option when you’re short on time. After warming up for 10 minutes, follow a program like the 30/30r in Concept2’s menu. This program has you row vigorously for 30 seconds, rest for 30 seconds, and repeat.


In the plan below, every five minutes you can break the 30/30 cycle with another exercise such as air squats or pushups.

Do steps 1-4 three times for a 21-minute workout:


  1. 30 Seconds Row High PCR (Perceived Exertion Rate)
  2. 30 Seconds Rest
  3. Repeat 1 & 2 for a total of five cycles (five minutes).
  4. Do pushups, chest presses, lunges or squats for two minutes.


Finish with a cool-down.


Design Your Own Interval Workouts

The consoles on many high-end rowing machines let you design and save interval workouts. For example, a program template might have ten interval fields that you fill in with desired time increments and resistance levels.

You can also keep track of your activity the old fashioned paper way. Concept2 publishes a free PDF that you can print. It helps you plan interval workouts and track your progress.

Music for Rowing Workouts

Music can support your fitness success. To easily find music that’s at your preferred pace (maybe 150 to 180 beats per minute), check out a website like the Dave Tompkins Music Database or These websites let you search by bpm and have links to play or buy the music.

You can also get apps that search your own music library for an estimated beats per minute.

To inspire playlists in different musical genres, here are 12 songs with 160 bpm:



Help us build rowing workout playlists! Comment or email us about your favorite free online rowing workouts and workout songs.


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